- Dicembre 20, 2020
The Open Skies policy covers nine air freedoms, as defined under the International Civil Aviation Convention (also the Chicago Convention), signed in Chicago in 1944. The freedoms are as follows, cited by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the body that established and governs the Chicago Convention.  Open skies regulations include the area over which the parties exercise sovereignty, including continental islands and inland and territorial waters. The treaty stipulates that the entire territory of a Member State is open to observation. Observation flights should be limited only for aviation safety reasons and not for national security reasons.  Thirty-four years later, U.S. President George H.W. Bush reintroduced the concept of “open skies” to build trust and security between all the countries of the North Atlantic Treaty (NATO) and the Warsaw Pact. In February 1990, an open-air international conference opened in Ottawa, Canada, with the participation of all NATO Pact and Warsaw Pact countries.
Rounds of negotiations were then held in Budapest, Hungary; Vienna, Austria; Helsinki, Finland.  The Open Skies Treaty came into force on 1 January 2002 and currently has 34 party states. It is implementing a programme of unarmed air surveillance flights throughout the territory of its participants. The treaty aims to strengthen mutual understanding and trust by giving all participants, regardless of size, a direct role in gathering information on military forces and activities that affect them. The idea of allowing countries to openly veil themselves is to prevent misunderstandings (for example. B to assure a potential adversary that his country will not go to war) and limit the escalation of tensions. It also offers countries mutual responsibility to deliver on their contractual promises. The Open Skies is one of the most important international efforts to date to promote the openness and transparency of the armed forces and activities. You have also significantly improved consumer choice, so you can choose from a variety of airlines that compete for your customers, and travel to a variety of destinations, as more international gateways will be open. And as more agreements are signed around the world, the potential of business travellers grows.
In fact, even the U.S. government website notes that “open skies agreements have significantly increased international passenger and cargo flights to and from the United States, promoting more travel and trade, increasing productivity and stimulating quality jobs and economic growth.” There were previous agreements, but in 2008 this current treaty came into force and replaced all the other agreements. The contract disappointed European airlines because they felt chosen for US airlines: while US airlines are allowed to operate flights within the EU (when it is an all-cargo flight or a passenger flight, if this is the second leg of a flight launched in the United States), European airlines are not allowed to fly intra-U.S. flights, nor can they acquire a controlling interest in the an American operator.  The agreement replaced and replaced the old open skies agreements between the United States and some European countries. Let`s decompense parts of the open skies agreement and see what that means.